Lippage is the vertical displacement between two adjacent tiles of a ceramic, glass, or stone installation. When excessive, this can lead to numerous problems, ranging from chipped edges to snagged furnishings and appliances to safety hazards.
Stone buildings, especially cathedrals, are meant to last for generations. Unfortunately, the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception in Albany, New York, experienced severe failures from its earliest years.
Built in 1982, Capital One Plaza is a 22-story structure in Houston, Texas. The building exterior wall consists of ribbon windows and 30-mm (1 1?8-in.) thick travertine panels connected to precast concrete spandrel panels.The cladding was fabricated by placing travertine panels face-down in formwork, installing stainless steel wire loop anchors into predrilled holes in their back surface, and casting concrete against this to encapsulate the stainless steel anchors.
This article looks at stone design, highlighting case studies that demonstrate success with sandblast projects. It also examines new technologies that have improved detailing for stone manufacturers. Finally, the piece explores sustainably green aspects of natural stone and how its use must include an assessment of the building material in terms of its complete environmental impact, from quarrying and fabrication to transporting and installation.
Built in the late 1920s, the Art Deco 10 Light Street is the first skyscraper in Baltimore. A detailed façade inspection was recently completed using 29 swing stage drops for close access—this led to a restoration project for the more than 325 m2 (3500 sf) of Italian marble, replacing it with a durable quartzite from Brazil. This article examines what occurred during the reconstruction.
When there is a tile or stone failure, a contributing factor is often the lack of properly installed movement joints. Just like concrete sidewalks and bridges, tile and stone need to have movement joints to control the anticipated movements within a structure. Tile and stone will expand and contract when it is subjected to heat/cold or moisture/dryness. It is critical for architects to properly specify the design, materials, and layouts of movement joints.