04 00 00 Masonry

Category Archives: 04 00 00 Masonry

Selecting Joint Reinforcement

Photo courtesy Neumann/Smith Architecture

In a time of increasing complex walls, the masonry industry is striving to rediscover the simplistic principles that made it the material choice of the greatest civilizations in history. The principle “less is more” holds true when it comes to selecting wire reinforcement for reinforced masonry wall systems. Standard 9 gauge ladder shape wire fabricated with butt-welded cross-rods spaced 16 inches on center better facilitates code required rebar centering, grout flow and consolidation, and shrinkage control.

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Weep Now or Weep Later: Moisture management and risk zones for masonry

All images courtesy Masonry Technology Inc.

Weeps should create an opportunity for the liquid water that has drained down to the top surface of a flashing to exit the core or cavity of the masonry wall on the top surface of the flashing. Unfortunately, numerous unfortunate conditions have occurred because of incorrect uses of materials and devices, or detailing errors. This article examines what design professionals need to know about allowing moisture to escape their masonry.

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Weep Now or Weep Later: Of Ropes and Tubes

All images courtesy Masonry Technology Inc.

One of the first commonly employed weep details was the sash cord or ‘rope’ weep. In some cases, this detail was expanded with sections of the sash cord laid in the cavity and then extended through the wall, usually at a head joint. In other cases, the sash cord was fastened vertically up the backside of the cavity. In yet other instances, it would be pulled out of the wall, leaving a hole through the head joint or bed joint of mortar.

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Troubleshooting Exterior Masonry Walls

Photo © BigStockPhoto/Ronald Hudson

This article focuses on original building design evaluation (including expansion joints) and diagnostics of cracks in brick veneer masonry walls. Proper rehabilitation techniques are reviewed, along with solid masonry wall system drainage design, and evaluation of diagonal, vertical, and horizontal cracks (including simple water penetration testing and knowledge regarding freeze and thaw).

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Durability of Brick Veneer: Remediation – Helical Anchors

A. Structural framing member is located by removing a masonry unit and drilling holes until structural member is located. Pilot holes should be sealed before reinstalling masonry unit. (In steel stud framing, the structural member can be located using a metal detector.)

A well-defined selection and layout of masonry veneer anchors can improve performance and durability of enclosures using masonry veneer cladding. Often, the masonry veneer is shown on architectural drawings and the anchors are included in the specifications, but design detailing of anchor spacing and layout is not always clearly defined. Problems can arise due to architectural conditions that need to be considered such as stack-bonded masonry, veneer column elements, offsets in the brick courses, and integration of soldier and rowlock courses. Recent testing of the pullout resistance and failure mode of masonry anchors highlights the need for a comprehensive design using applicable codes and industry standards to create improved durability of the cladding.

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Durability of Brick Veneer: A deeper look at masonry anchors

All images courtesy Building Diagnostics Inc.

A well-defined selection and layout of masonry veneer anchors can improve performance and durability of enclosures using masonry veneer cladding. Often, the masonry veneer is shown on architectural drawings and the anchors are included in the specifications, but design detailing of anchor spacing and layout is not always clearly defined. Problems can arise due to architectural conditions that need to be considered such as stack-bonded masonry, veneer column elements, offsets in the brick courses, and integration of soldier and rowlock courses. Recent testing of the pullout resistance and failure mode of masonry anchors highlights the need for a comprehensive design using applicable codes and industry standards to create improved durability of the cladding.

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