Lippage is the vertical displacement between two adjacent tiles of a ceramic, glass, or stone installation. When excessive, this can lead to numerous problems, ranging from chipped edges to snagged furnishings and appliances to safety hazards.
When properly applied, tests can yield valuable insight into the installed performance of systems, aid investigators in determining the cause of a failure, or help to determine if a product is performing to its intended level. However, when improperly applied, many tests and standards can produce misleading results, improper conclusions, and lead to unnecessary repairs or remediation efforts. Within this context, the article takes an in-depth look at roofing assemblies, along with glazing, masonry, and air barrier assemblies.
This article for construction specifiers assesses why and when to consider temporary buildings as an alternative to permanent construction, renovation, or leased existing space. Decision-making criteria, including category options, financial and site considerations, as well as technical information on energy-efficiency, usable space, roof loads, and wind ratings are examined.
Discussing specification writing and documentation details can be challenging, but the right set of specifications is a key component in the process to deliver a successful project. It is crucial the specification writer understands the intent of how systems will operate and how systems relate to each other. This is getting even more important as new buildings are getting more complex and have loftier energy efficiency goals. This article describes the most important aspects of construction specifications to ensure a good outcome for energy efficient buildings.
When there is a tile or stone failure, a contributing factor is often the lack of properly installed movement joints. Just like concrete sidewalks and bridges, tile and stone need to have movement joints to control the anticipated movements within a structure. Tile and stone will expand and contract when it is subjected to heat/cold or moisture/dryness. It is critical for architects to properly specify the design, materials, and layouts of movement joints.
Exterior decks and balconies, and interior showers and bathrooms, have historically been problematic areas for the installation of ceramic, glass, and stone tiles. Typically, problems are due to installer error, not using appropriate materials, or not providing clear enough specifications. In each case, it is the result of not following industry standards.