The costs of cleaning efflorescence from grout joints and tile surfaces can range from a lost day on a callback to a financial fortune, depending on the size and type of project on which it occurs. For example, to acid-wash tile on one large project, remediation costs exceeded $100,000 for the labor and the scaffolding.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a naturally occurring gas byproduct of every organism that breathes oxygen; it is found deep in the oceans and high in the atmosphere. It is also vitally important—without CO2, photosynthesis would not be possible, and life would not exist.
Replacing 100 percent of portland cement with fly ash to produce concrete has long been considered something remarkable in the comfort of highly controlled lab conditions, but impossible for practical large field applications.
The use of rapid-setting calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cement reduces the amount of energy and carbon dioxide emissions associated with portland cement production. It also requires less limestone—the primary source of carbon dioxide released during the chemical sintering process.
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