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Category Archives: Form+Function

Adaptive Reuse: Inner-city high school campus builds up

he doors used effectively separate the elevator lobby area from the corridors in Georgia’s North Atlanta High School high-rise building.  Photos © Jim Roof/Won-Door FireGuard

The exterior of the 11-story renovation of North Atlanta High School. Photos © Jim Roof/Won-Door FireGuard

by Sharon Haddock

The new North Atlanta High School has risen from the ashes of an old office complex and now boasts safe access and egress for students across campus.

Designed by Collins Cooper Carusi Architects along with Cooper Carry & Associates, the 23-ha (56-acre) site was previously a complex of aging IBM office buildings that included two 11-story towers. Reborn as a school, the project is targeting Silver under the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program.

Opened as of November 2012, it also showcases—particularly to school districts looking for more land and space—that valuable, finite inner-city space can be effectively and efficiently repurposed.

Door specifications
Horizontal sliding accordion fire doors were specified for 48 openings. These doors were chosen to separate and protect—among other access points—the express elevator doorways that will transport students rapidly to the upper floors.

“We needed to get 2400 kids up to the classrooms on the upper floors,” said Margarita R. Perez, the onsite architect for Collins Cooper Carusi Architects. “Our primary concerns were the up-and-down access and security—that is where the doors came in.”

The accordion fire doors make easy and safe access for the surges of students trying to make their way from class to class on different levels.

This shows the exterior of the 11-story renovation of the North Atlanta High School.

The doors used effectively separate the elevator lobby area from the corridors in Georgia’s North Atlanta High School high-rise building.

“We needed elevator lobbies with large openings and we still had to meet code,” said Perez. “Basically, we were handed a glass box to work in. Our openings had to be quite large to really allow the kind of flow we needed.”

Perez said the doors and a destination elevator system—where people are grouped in the elevators according to the various floors they want—solved many of the design problems for the 11-story school.

The North Atlanta High School project is different from the conventional design and construction of educational facilities. Perez said her firm and the contractor ended up modeling almost every move to be sure what they were doing would work with existing low ceilings and infrastructure.

Office conversion
‘Adaptive reuse’ is the term used for this type of project where office towers were converted into an educational space. One of the original towers was razed, and the other was renovated into 37,161 m2 (400,000 sf) of classroom space, as well as a cafeteria, administration offices, media center, and library in the three lower floors.

The new tower houses the gymnasium, a 600-seat auditorium, theater, and performing arts space. Each building is 121 x 30.5 m (400 x 100 ft) with the dimensions and low ceilings dictated by what had been in place before. Further, the parking lots have been converted into baseball fields laid out among the existing woods.

The project cost the school district a total of $132 million—a fair price given the fact large enough plots were otherwise unavailable for purchase in the area. This made it one of the largest investments by Atlanta Public Schools on the north side of Atlanta in decades—a response to significant increases in enrollment numbers.

This door can disappear into a pocket support in the high school.

This door can disappear into a pocket support in the high school.

Sharon Haddock is a freelance writer with experience as a reporter/editor for The Deseret News, Provo City, and Won-Door Corporation. She can be contacted at haddoc@deseretnews.com.

 

The Drive Toward Energy Efficiency

Energy-efficient light-emitting diodes (LED) luminaires provide consistent light levels for increased visibility and a secure environment.

Energy-efficient light-emitting diodes (LED) luminaires provide consistent light levels for increased visibility and a secure environment.
Photos © Kelly Lee Flora Photography

By Jeff Gatzow

The parking lot at the National Corvette Museum in Bowling Green, Kentucky has upgraded its illumination with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to improve light quality and provide better lighting control.

Located across the street from General Motor’s Bowling Green Corvette assembly plant—the only place in the world Corvettes are made—it was constructed in 1994, and showcases more than 70 Corvettes.

Visitors can see mint-condition classics, one-of-a-kind prototypes that never went into production, racetrack champions, and modern-day wonders of engineering and design. Attendees also have the opportunity to interact with educational hands-on exhibits, enjoy a film in the theater, and see rare collectibles and memorabilia.

Lighting upgrade
The museum’s upgrade to its three parking lots with LED luminaires was a one-for-one replacement—17 1000W metal halide fixtures were replaced with the same number of 240W LED luminaires. Also, 27 400W metal halide fixtures were switched to 27 120W LED luminaires. At the time the decision to retrofit the parking lots’ lighting was made, the museum had two key priorities for the upgrade: improve the quality and color rendition of the lighting, and enhance control of lighting energy use while maintaining or improving the lot’s safety.

The LED luminaires provide consistent light levels for the entire parking lot, reduced hazardous waste disposal, and provide more efficient light distribution than the metal halide fixtures. Additionally, these luminaires are virtually maintenance-free, offering another opportunity to further reduce expenses.

“The exterior lighting allows us to dramatically reduce operating expenses,” said Bob Hellmann, the museum’s facilities and displays manager. “Additionally, the new lights help make the parking lot bright and secure.”

The retrofit of these 44 fixtures is expected to save the museum $9300 annually in energy expenses and virtually eliminate the $2000 spent in annual maintenance and repair for the incumbent metal halide fixtures. The National Corvette Museum will have a payback of only three years. Further, the utility company, Tennessee Valley Authority, provided $9350 in incentives for the upgrades.

Commitment to sustainability
The National Corvette Museum is committed to sustainability through several green initiatives with the goal of enhanced energy conservation and lessening its carbon footprint. Through these efforts, the museum not only realizes bottom line cost savings, but also works to strengthen business relationships and inspire environmental action by the facility’s patrons.

In addition to the recent retrofit of exterior LED luminaires of the parking lots, the museum has also upgraded other exterior and interior building fixtures to further reduce energy costs and improve the quality of lighting.

“The energy-efficient lighting allows us to drive down operating expenses, present our cars and exhibits in the best light, and contribute to the greening of our community,” said Hellmann. “We installed the LED luminaires and the more efficient fluorescent lights because they pay back in so many ways and it’s the right thing to do.”

Recently, the museum was the site of a 12-m (40-ft) wide 6-m (20-ft) deep sinkhole that swallowed eight vehicles and caused extensive damage.

Before the light-emitting diode (LED) upgrade, metal halide fixtures consumed a lot of energy and required ongoing maintenance at the National Corvette Museum in Bowling Green, Kentucky.

Before the light-emitting diode (LED) upgrade, metal halide fixtures consumed a lot of energy and required ongoing maintenance at the National Corvette Museum in Bowling Green, Kentucky.

Jeff-Gatzow-headshot

Jeff Gatzow is national sales and marketing manager, lighting with Optec LED. The California-based supplier of high efficiency LED lighting fixtures feature a patented thermal management system for cool operation and extended life. Gatzow can be reached by e-mail at jgatzow@optec.com.

Industrial Daylighting

Increasing light quality and reducing energy load

All images courtesy Acuity Brands

By Brian Grohe

For an electrical conduit design and manufacturing company in Roselle, Illinois, a new plant would represent as much as a 60 percent increase in company production and 25 new jobs in the community. However, before expanding manufacturing operations to a 4923-m2 (53,000-sf) space, there needed to be major changes to the 14-year-old building.

The building would be reclassified from industrial to heavy manufacturing, and it would be made as environmentally sound as possible. This meant improved energy efficiency where it was most achievable—in the building’s thermal properties and lighting system. Specifically, the company wanted vegetated roofing assemblies, lowered indoor temperatures, and improved energy efficiency, as well as daylighting solutions.

Two years ago in another project, 15 skylights were retrofitted with new ones from a California-based manufacturer specializing in high-performance prismatic skylights for the commercial market. Having seen the enhanced performance of those skylights, project manager Ed Berbeka opted for them again.

This photo shows the 55 to 62 footcandle (fc) readings inside the facility after the installation of prismatic skylights.

This photo shows the 55 to 62 footcandle (fc) readings inside the facility after the installation of prismatic skylights.

A total of 56 skylights were installed in the Roselle facility last October, at the same time the insulation and new roofing was installed. For the insulation upgrade, R-25 insulation would meet the latest international standards for long-term, thermal-resistance values. For the roofing upgrade, the existing ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) black membrane was replaced with more reflective white—and more energy-efficient—thermoplastic polyolefin (TPO) material. The TPO assembly, lightweight and time-tested since the mid-1970s, reflects the sun’s rays to reduce incoming heat, and does not require rock ballast.

New electrical and energy-efficient lighting was also part of the upgrade to the building. After the roof renovation, the building’s interior temperature decreased by an estimated 17 C (30 F)—a measure taken during the month of August, just before the entire project was completed.

Lighting also significantly improved. The new skylights cover three percent of the roof area, which is relatively standard for industrial buildings. Thanks to their prismatic properties, however, the lighting inside the building, which has a ceiling height of about 12.19 m (40 ft), is anything but standard.

Generally speaking, warehouse lighting varies from as few as 5- to 10-fc (footcandles) in inactive storage areas, to as much as 30- to 40-fc output in more active spaces such as loading docks or receiving areas. After the installation of the skylights, light-level readings in the building reached from 55 to as much as 62 fc—without any use of electrical lighting.

A new roofing membrane and insulation to reduce the HVAC load were installed.

A new roofing membrane and insulation to reduce the HVAC load were installed.

The electrician took note of the lack of ‘hot spots’ created by typical bubble-dome skylights, which can allow heat to build in the space below. The specified skylights, however, diffuse the incoming light through its prismatic lenses, eliminating hot spots, glare, or haze, as well as dissipating any heat. All that remains in the space is fully captured, evenly distributed and ultraviolet (UV)-stable daylighting coverage.

In addition to increasing the interior light source and providing increased energy savings, the building owner says the daylighting solution also boosted employee morale in the manufacturing plant.

Brian Grohe, LEED AP, is the corporate accounts manager–industrial for Acuity Brands. He holds a bachelor’s degree from Columbia College in Chicago. With more than nine years in the daylighting industry, Grohe has held roles in regional sales and business development. He can be contacted by e-mail at brian.grohe@acuitybrands.com.

Providence Office Park II Finds Gold with Raised Access Floors

By Scott Alwine, LEED AP

Portland’s 21,925-m2 (236,000-sf) Providence Office Park II development includes a raised access floor system in five of its six floors.  Photos courtesy Jon R. Jurgens & Associates

Portland’s 21,925-m2 (236,000-sf) Providence Office Park II development includes a raised access floor system in five of its six floors.
Photos courtesy Jon R. Jurgens & Associates

For its Portland, Oregon, offices, Providence Health & Services—a Catholic healthcare ministry—includes open park space on a tight urban site. However, one of its ‘greenest’ attributes may be its floors. A raised access floor system employed in five of Office Park II’s six floors, is instrumental to the open-plan design, daylighting, and expansive views for employees of owner Providence Health & Services. The facility also boasts a U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold certification, exceeding the Silver originally sought by the building owner and required by the city.

The 21,925-m2 (236,000-sf) building is home to some of the organization’s Oregon region departments, which provide healthcare, community services, and education to communities.

The six-story building includes one level of below-grade parking and a mixed-use ground level that includes café, conference center, commercial space, and employment center.

Upstairs, offices and meeting rooms surround a structural core including stairways and two elevator shafts. This core provides the entire building’s seismic and lateral bracing.

“The structural core allowed us to eliminate cross-bracing throughout the building and raised access flooring eliminated the need for overhead ductwork,” Tom Wesel, architect at Oregon-based Jon R. Jurgens & Associates Beaverton said. “As a result, when you step out of the core area, you always have access to natural light and an unobstructed view to the outside.”

The raised access floor system consists of an understructure and 609-mm (24-in.) square, welded steel floor panels filled with lightweight cement. The understructure supporting the panels provides positive positioning, lateral retention, and leveling adjustments to ensure the floor is soundly supported on all contact points.

The resulting underfloor pathway created by the raised floor panels provides housing for the building’s wiring, cabling and heating, and HVAC systems. Power-voice-data (PVD) terminations fed through the modular floor panels offer convenient, flexible access to all these services, while air diffusers supply fresh cool air from the underfloor plenum directly into the occupied space.

Along with the ability to distribute air from under the floor, comes improved comfort control in individual work areas, the result of diffusers placed in the floor that deliver conditioned air to the space.

“These diffusers enable employees to adjust the volume and the direction of air entering their work space,” Wesel noted. “Using them helped us to achieve an important goal Providence Health & Services identified early in the planning process—to provide individual control over comfort by eliminating the hot and cold syndrome employees had experienced in other facilities.”

Just as importantly, the underfloor air distribution (UFAD) system provides employees with improved indoor air quality (IAQ). This is because air is delivered directly to the occupied space, typically identified as the space from floor level up to 1.8 m (6 ft). During the process, older, warmer air is carried to the ceiling by natural convection and removed through return outlets, keeping it out of the occupied zone.

The underfloor air distribution (UFAD) system improves the indoor air quality (IAQ) for employees. Air is delivered directly to the occupied space and during the process, older, warmer air is carried to the ceiling by natural convection and removed through return outlets, keeping it out of the occupied zone.

The underfloor air distribution (UFAD) system improves the indoor air quality (IAQ) for employees. Air is delivered directly to the occupied space and during the process, older, warmer air is carried to the ceiling by natural convection and removed through return outlets, keeping it out of the occupied zone.

At the same time, the access floor system supports the flexible floor plan important to the building owner. Occupants are able to reconfigure or relocate work areas without having to move walls and rewire offices.

“In addition, the ability to run all the wiring and cables under the floor eliminated the need to purchase powered furniture, which can create another set of issues and challenges with respect to reconfiguring office space,” said Wesel.

Energy costs have also decreased as a result of the access floor system.

“Oregon has a pretty high mandate for energy efficiency, so saving energy was certainly top of mind as we discussed plans for this building,” said Richard Staley, regional director of construction services for the state’s Providence Health & Services.

The facility is Leadership in Energy and Efficient Design (LEED) Gold-certified and employs daylighting, rubber flooring, and motion sensors to control lighting and HVAC.

The facility is Leadership in Energy and Efficient Design (LEED) Gold-certified and employs daylighting, rubber flooring, and motion sensors to control lighting and HVAC.

Additional energy-efficient design elements include:

  • extensive use of daylighting;
  • window glazing and sunshades;
  • a rubber roof that minimizes heat loss and gain; and
  • motion sensors to control lighting and HVAC.

Although Providence Health & Services used UFAD in computer rooms in other facilities, Providence Office Park II represents the first time the organization considered a raised access floor for office space.

“Using the mockup, we were able to demonstrate how the air moves through the space, allowing owner representatives to see and hear it,” explained Adam Carlson, mechanical engineer with Interface Engineering, the firm responsible for the design of the mechanical, electrical, plumbing, and lighting systems in the building. “We also presented them with a smoke video that showed airflow patterns and the positive impact a raised floor system has on indoor air quality.”

Once construction began, great care was taken to maintain the integrity of the underfloor plenum. The design team agreed sequencing and maintaining a clean plenum were the two biggest challenges of installing an underfloor air distribution system. There was an extensive walk-through to ensure all the columns went down to the floor, and things were sealed before the floor’s completion. The system was also tested.

Energy savings came in a number of ways, thanks in part to the fact air for an UFAD system can be supplied at temperatures between 16.6 and 18.3 C (62 and 65 F), as opposed to 10 and 12.7 C (50 to 55 F) in an overhead system. In Portland, the outside air temperature frequently allows for use of an economizer, providing cost-effective cooling to the building. This is because the air does not have to first mix with the warmer air at the ceiling level before descending to building occupants. As a result, the underfloor air system is able to provide more economization hours.

Additionally, ventilation air, brought into the building to make the space more comfortable, contributes to the structure’s heating and cooling load.

“The calculation we use to determine how much fresh air to bring into the space takes into consideration how effectively the air is delivered to the occupants. So, in a system that delivers air from the floor directly to the occupied space, the calculation shows less ventilation air is required, resulting in additional energy savings,” explained Carlson.

Only the 1.8-m high occupied space requires cooling, and the UFAD system can supply air at low pressure, paving the way for more energy savings. The static pressure required for UFAD systems is typically 12.5 Pa (.05-inch wg), which is significantly less than the pressure needed to force air through rigid ductwork in an overhead system. As a result, the HVAC system uses less fan energy. In the case of Providence Office Park II, UFAD provides a 30 percent savings in fan energy and a 15 percent savings in system refrigeration energy.

The underfloor system definitely helps, contributing to improved comfort levels, better IAQ, and increased efficiencies.

Scott Alwine, LEED AP, is a marketing manager with Tate Inc. He has more than 10 years of experience in the building products and services industry. Alwine holds a bachelor of science in manufacturing technology and a master of science in business administration from California University of Pennsylvania. He is a member of the Commercial Real Estate Development Association (NAIOP) and the Building Owners and Managers Association International (BOMA). Alwine can be contacted at salwine@tateinc.com.

National Wildlife Refuge maximizes on outdoor views and daylighting

The San Diego National Wildlife Refuge Visitor and Administrative Complex employed ceiling-mounted glass-panel doors throughout its design to provide a connection between the outside saltwater marsh landscape and its interior.

The San Diego National Wildlife Refuge Visitor and Administrative Complex employed ceiling-mounted glass-panel doors throughout its design to provide a connection between the outside saltwater marsh landscape and its interior.
Photos © Mike Torrey. Photos courtesy Klein.

The facility maximizes on daylighting in its administrative offices, multi-purpose room, and visitors center.

The facility maximizes on daylighting in its administrative offices, multi-purpose room, and visitors center.

 

Opening in August of 2011, the San Diego National Wildlife Refuge Visitor and Administrative Complex (Chula Vista, California) specified frameless, interior sliding glass door assemblies to maximize on interior space and daylighting.

The $6-million, one-story administrative headquarters project for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is 743-m2 (8000-sf) and contains administrative offices, visitors’ center, multi-purpose room, maintenance facility, and laboratory. Designed by Line and Space LLC, the use of interior glass allowed the team to maintain a connection between the surrounding landscape and the facility’s interior.

Separating the multi-purpose conference room and offices from the main hallway is a system of moveable and non-moveable glass-panel doors from floor to ceiling. These are installed using ceiling-mounted tracks to move, increasing the facility’s clean look.

The extensive use of daylighting will not only offer occupants continuous views, it will also attribute to energy savings. The structure achieved the U.S. Green Building Council’s (USGBC’s) Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold certification for New Construction.

Located on the site of the only remaining saltwater marsh habitat in southern California, Sweetwater Marsh, the structure is situated on land previously disturbed, to not further disrupt the site. The building’s exterior was designed with glass panes angled downwards, reflecting ground and not sky, to limit the number of birds colliding with it.

The facility consolidated operations previously being conducted amongst four off-site facilities. The new structure’s addition allows the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to provide increased services including:

  • managing migratory birds;
  • protecting endangered or threatened species;
  • conserving and restoring terrestrial and aquatic habitats; and
  • protecting a biologically diverse habitat.

Other sustainable features incorporated into the design include:

  • use of a 30-kw photovoltaic systems converting sunlight into electricity with solar panels;
  • natural daylighting;
  • use of low volatile organic compounds (VOC) materials;
  • active and passive heating and cooling techniques; and
  • waterharvesting.