Located in San Francisco, 181 Fremont Street is a 244-m (800-ft) building designed to be resilient against structural damage in a 500-year earthquake. The steel and glass tower is anchored by construction shafts measuring more than 29 m (260 ft) down into the bedrock, allowing it to respond to wind forces and seismic events in an optimal way.
Zinc is naturally found in elements such as air, water, and soil as well as in plants, animals, and humans. It is the 27th most abundant element in the Earth’s crust and is infinitely recyclable without the loss of its properties, making it a true renewable resource.
Visitors to the Circuit of the Americas Observation Tower and Austin360 Amphitheater are fully immersed in the experience of Formula 1 racing, thanks to red steel tubes evoking the glowing tail lights of a car left behind in the dark. Located in Austin, Texas, the tower consists of a continuously welded double-helix stair wrapped in a filigree-like diagrid, enhancing the perception it is taller than its actual height of 76 m (250 ft).
Composite steel assemblies are an efficient and popular structural option for floor construction. Figure 1 shows a typical assembly, consisting of a steel beam, metal deck, concrete slab, and shear connectors. The composite action between the steel beam and concrete provided by shear connectors creates the composite properties that make the system a very stiff and strong structural element.
The biennial “Architectural Iron and Steel in the 21st Century: Design and Preservation of Contemporary and Historic Architecture” will be held at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge this coming spring.