Lippage is the vertical displacement between two adjacent tiles of a ceramic, glass, or stone installation. When excessive, this can lead to numerous problems, ranging from chipped edges to snagged furnishings and appliances to safety hazards.
For years, adjacent prestressed concrete box-beam bridges have been employed for short and medium spans—two-thirds of all state Department of Transportations (DOTs) use them. Cracks in the longitudinal grouted joints between adjacent beams have often been observed.
Joints formed between adjacent concrete pours and where mechanical elements penetrate the concrete are the most likely points of water ingress into below-grade concrete structures. To prevent this from occurring, waterstops are commonly specified and installed at every joint in the concrete below-grade.
Precast double-tee construction has become a dominant method for building parking garages in North America. The double-tee beam deck system of this construction type provides a finished wearing surface, supports vehicle loading, and forms an integral part of the lateral force-resisting system.
In-situ load testing is a powerful tool to assess the performance of structures with respect to their ability to carry code-prescribed loads. The practice dates back to the late 1800s and has been used to verify the load rating of structures.
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